Comparative analysis of the repellency activity of single compounds and the synthetic blends of semiochemicals from Aframomum melegueta (R.schum) and Dennittia tripetala (Bak.F) against Rhizopertha dominica in Calabar, Nigeria

Lawrence Ahmed Ugbe and Emmanuel B. Adie
Keywords: Toxicity, Reproductive potential, Synthetic Blend, Bioactivity, Oviposition, Deterrence, Essential oils (EOs).
Tropical Journal of Science and Technology 2020 1(2), 59-69. Published: March 10, 2021


Abstract

Bioassay experiments were carried out in Calabar to compare the repellency activity of single compounds and the synthetic blends of Semiochemicals extracted from Afromomum melegueta and Dennittia tripetala. The aim of the experiment was to determine the efficacy of single compounds and the synthetic blends in suppressing the reproductive potential and adult emergence of Rhizopertha dominica, (Fabricius), a primary pest of stored cassava pellets and cereal grains in Sub-Saharan Africa. Insect culture of the adult R. dominica was set up in the laboratory at Federal College of Education Obudu to obtain fresh insects for the bioassay experiments. Dried seeds of A. melegueta (R. Schum) and D. tripetala (Baker f.) Schatz were procured from the main market in Obudu for the purpose of the research work. 100g each of the dried fruits of the spice plants were pounded separately with the laboratory pestle and mortar for the extraction of the essential oils (EOs). The oils extracted were tested for toxicity and reproductive potential deterrence against R. dominica. The chemical constituents of the essential oils were isolated, identified and tested against R. dominica. Synthetic blends of individual compounds were prepared based on their natural ratios and were also tested for toxicity and reproductive potential deterrence against the insect pests in the laboratory. The result showed that both the single compounds and the synthetic blends were toxic and repellent to the insect pest, and could significantly suppress the reproductive potential thereby inhibiting the emergence of adult insect. However, synthetic blends exhibited a stronger efficacy in their toxicity against the pest thereby providing a broad spectrum of insecticidal bioactivity against R. dominica than the single compounds. This action of the synthetic blends of extracts from the spice plants demonstrated their potential for development in stored products protection especially at the small scale resource poor farmer’s level in Nigeria.