The effect of transmission and distribution losses on daily electricity supply in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Donatus Uchechukwu Onyishi and Otega Ejofodomi
Keywords: Electricity generation, distribution, transmission & distribution losses.
Tropical Journal of Science and Technology 2021 2(1), 60-68. Published: July 25, 2021


Abstract

It has been reported that Nigeria requires a daily generation of 470,000 MWH (or 19,583 MWH/H) to provide constant electricity to its 36 states and its capital city and is currently generating only 17% of the electricity required to meet the demands of her citizens. However, little or no in-depth analysis has been performed on the performance of the electricity transmission and distribution systems and to determine their impact on the availability of electricity for consumers. This paper explores the effect of transmission and distribution losses on the availability of electricity in Nigeria. The Nigerian National Electricity Grid was able to provide an average of 9.99 ± 0.54 hrs of electricity to the 13 LGAs of Ebonyi State for each day in July 2020. For the case where there were no transmission losses, each LGA in Ebonyi State would have received 10.79 ± 0.58 hrs of electricity each day in July 2020. Where no distribution losses were present, each LGA in Ebonyi State would have received 23.23 ± 1.25 hrs of electricity each day in July 2020. Where there were no transmission or distribution losses, each LGA in Ebonyi State would have received 25.09 ± 1.35 hrs of electricity each day in July 2020. These results indicate that elimination of the distribution losses presently experienced by the electricity distribution companies could ensure constant electricity supply for the 13 LGAs in Ebonyi State. Based on this, the power distribution sector, and not the power generation sector, is the major reason for the electricity shortage in Ebonyi State, and possibly for other states in Nigeria. It is recommended that more emphasis should be on distribution infrastructure now before focusing on improving the country's power generation capacity.